Thursday, August 8, 2019

Chapter4 summary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Chapter4 summary - Essay Example Similarly, philosophy has its own set of principles that differentiate conflicting ideas (Stewart, & Blocker, 2001). The rise of western philosophy brought about a significant shift in philosophy and reasoning. In particular, the shift induced the appeal of reason from mythological criteria. An appeal to reason is the idea of making logical analysis before making a decision. Emotions do not comprise logical reason, in the sense that they compel one to make hasty decisions. Thus, the appeal to reason is the universal sense of correctness. However, different people have different measures for correctness as well as reasoning. The nature of a problem explains the existence of varied reasons. For instance, most people will disagree on a particular political agenda but agree on 5+7 = 12. This introduces the issue of reasonable decision or specifically what reason is. Reason is the basis of decisions making and, it reflects on the fairness of ideas or conclusions. Therefore, a reasonable person is one who judges his reasons and determines the most appropriate ones. Application of reasoning in decision-making is an appeal to concentrate on an issue. The study of logic and the connection between logic and reasoning is the foundation of philosophy. Science is also established on the appeal to reason; however, unlike philosophy, science utilizes empirical facts. For instance, a scientist must verify a claim through experiments before he or she can declare them the absolute truth. On the other hand, philosophers attempt to articulate our beliefs and assumption on nature. Thus, philosophers are preoccupied with theories that prove certain facts, instead of creating new theories. Philosophy’s chief tool is reason and, therefore it is not an empirical subject (Stewart, & Blocker, 2001). Since ancient times, people have been compelled to live according to reason. Socrates once said that life without reason is not worth living. Therefore,

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